Mangoes retain a special significance in the culture of South Asia where they have been cultivated for millennia. It has been the national fruit of India, Bangladesh and Philippines.
Reference of mangoes as the ”food of the gods” can be found in the Hindu Vedas and the leaves are ritually used for floral decorations at Hindu marriages and religious ceremonies. Experts have traced the origin of mango to the hills of Meghalaya, India from a 65 million year-old fossil of a mango leaf.
The mango is a tropical fruit of the mango tree. Mangoes belong to the genus Mangifera which consists of about 30 species it belongs to family Anacardiaceae.
Mango trees (Mangifera indica) reach 35-40 m in height, with a crown radius of 10 m. The leaves are evergreen, alternate, simple, 15-35 cm long and 6-16 cm broad; when the leaves are young they are orange-pink, rapidly changing to a dark glossy red, then dark green as they mature. The flowers are produced in terminal panicles 10-40 cm long; each flower is small and white with five petals 5-10 mm long, with a mild sweet odor suggestive of lily of the valley. After the flowers finish, the fruit takes from three to six months to ripen.
Ayurvedic Properties and Uses: Rasa is Madhur & Amal, Veerya is Sheet, Vipaka is Madhur & Katu, Guna is Laghu, ruksha. Pacifies Kapha & pitta. Shelf life of Kernelis is 6 months to 1 year and for Resin the shelf life is many years.
Kernel is Kapha, Pitta pacifier, wound healer, Retentive, mutra sangrahnnia. Unripe fruit is Appetizer, Digestive, Aggravates dosha, Relieves burning sensation. Ripe fruit Pacifies vata, Pitta, oleation, motility enhancer, cardiac tonic, checks blood, gives strength (brihan) and aphrodisiac. If the unripe fruit is eaten in excess it can cause low digestive power, intermittent fever, disorders of blood, constipation & diseases of eye.
The fruit flesh of a ripe mango is very sweet, with a unique taste. The texture of the flesh varies markedly between different cultivators; some have quite a soft and pulpy texture similar to an over-ripe plum, while others have a firmer flesh much like that of a cantaloupe or avocado, and in some cultivars the flesh can contain fibrous material.
The mango is an excellent nutritional source, containing many vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants, as well as enzymes such as magneferin and lactase which aid in digestion and intestinal health. It is also used in some parts of southeast Asian world as a supplement for sexual potency.
Usage as food: The fruit flesh of a ripe mango is very sweet, with a unique taste. Mangos are very juicy; the sweet taste and high water content makes them refreshing to eat.
Mangos are widely used in chutney, which in the West is often very sweet, but in the Indian subcontinent is usually made with sour, raw mangoes and hot chilis or limes. In India, ripe mango is often cut into thin layers, desiccated , folded, and then cut and sold as bars that are very chewy. These bars are known as ampapad in Hindi. In many parts of India, people eat squeezed mango juice (called Ras), the thickness of which depends on the type of mango, with variety of bread items and is part of the meal rather than a dessert. Many people like to eat unripe mangoes (which are extremely sour; much more than lemon) with salt, and in regions where food is hotter, with salt and chili.
In Kerala, ripe mango is used as a vegetable in the preparation of a dish called mambazha kaalan.
The fruit is also widely used as a key ingredient in a variety of cereal products, in particular muesli and oat granola. In other parts of South-east Asia, mangoes are very popular pickled with fish sauce and rice vinegar. Mango is also used to make juices, both in ripe and unripe form. Pieces of fruit can be mashed and used in ice cream; they can be used in pies; or blended with milk and ice to make thick milkshakes. In Thailand and other South East Asian countries, sweet glutinous rice is flavoured with coconut then served with sliced mango on top as a dessert.
Dried unripe mango used as a spice and is known as amchur (sometimes spelled amchoor) in India and ambi in Urdu. Raw mangoes are used in making pickles and condiments due to its peculiar sweet and sour taste. Dried and powdered raw mango is sometimes also used as a condiment in Indian cuisine.
Nutrient and antioxidant properties: An excellent overall nutritional source, mango is rich in dietary fiber and carbohydrates. It contains diverse essential vitamins and minerals, many of which are particularly high in content. The antioxidant vitamins A, C and E comprise 25%, 76% and 9%, respectively, of the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) in a 165 g serving. Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine, 11% DRI), vitamin K (9% DRI), other B vitamins and essential nutrients such as potassium, copper and 17 amino acids are at good levels. Mango peel and pulp contain other phytonutrients, such as carotenoids, polyphenols, and omega-3 and -6 polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Usually discarded as waste, mango peel has considerable potential as an antioxidant food source. Antioxidants of the peel and pulp include numerous carotenoids, polyphenols, such as quercetin, kaempferol, gallic acid, caffeic acid, catechins, tannins, and the unique mango xanthone, mangiferin, any of which may counteract free radicals in various disease mechanisms as revealed in preliminary research. Up to 25 different carotenoids have been isolated from mango pulp, the densest content for which was beta-carotene accounting for the yellow-orange pigmentation of most mango species.
The mango triterpene, lupeol, is an effective inhibitor in laboratory models of prostate and skin cancers. An extract of mango branch bark called Vimang, isolated by Cuban scientists, contains numerous polyphenols with antioxidant properties in vitro and on blood parameters of elderly humans. In the same plant family as poison sumac, mango’s peel also contains the oil, urushiol, possibly eliciting a skin rash called urushiol-induced contact dermatitis. Mango is recognized in the Muslim world as a possible supplement for sexual potency.
India is by far the largest producer, with an area of 16,000 km² with an annual production of 10.8 million tonnes, which accounts for 57.18% of the total world production. Within India, the southern state of Andhra Pradesh is the largest producer of Mangos, with 3,500 km² under cultivation (2004 data). In the country’s north, Uttar Pradesh state dominates the mango production tables.
Varieties of Mango : Alphonso, Benishan or Benishaan (Banganpalli in Telugu and Tamil) and Kesar mango varieties are considered among the best mangoes in the world. Alphonso is grown exclusively in the Konkan region of Maharashtra, the Alphonso mango that is commonly exported. Alphonso is named after Afonso De Albuquerque, who reputedly brought the drupe on his journeys to Goa. Pakistani varieties of mango include Chaunsa, Sindhori, Qalmi, Langra, Desi, Dusehri and Anwar Latore, most of which are produced in the areas of Multan Division and Sindh province. While these types of mangoes are well known for their tastes and smells within the country, they have not yet received a lot of exposure abroad.
Vomiting: Leaves of mango & jamun as cold decoction with honey
Epistaxis : Juice of seed of mango as nasya.
Spleenomegaly: juice of ripen mango with honey.
Dysentery: Bark of mango with milk & honey.
Bhav Parkash’s Indications:
In indigestion due to heavy meal, give unripe mango.
In indigestion due to meat seed of mango should be given.
In diarrhoea: Inner layer of mango is given.
Inflammation of liver & spleen: Decoction of mango roots and punarnava leaves is given.
Stomatitis: Apply powder of mango seed, geric clay & honey.
Dyspepsia: Panak prepared with mango juice, mishri, Elaichi, lavang & ginger is very good for dyspepsia, for promoting complexion & to increase appetite and strength.
Part used: Fruit, kernel (inner part of seed) bark, soft leaves & gum resin
1. Kernel powder-1 gram to 3 gram.
2. Decoction-15 ml. to 25 ml.
3. Juice-100 ml to 200 ml.
1. Pushyanug Churna.
2. Amra panak
3. Jam (Murraba)